Metabolic Bone Disease
A metabolic bone disorder is any of the disorders that lead to various anomalies or deformities to bones. The most common metabolic bone diseases are osteoporosis, ricketsand osteomalacia, osteogenesis imperfecta marble osteoporosis (osteopetrosis), Paget disease of bone as well as fibrous dysplasia. In terms of clinical definition metabolic bone disorders can cause bone pain and diminution of height (due to vertebrae being compressed) and can lead patients to fractures..
The skeleton as well as other tissues in the body, is subject to an ever-changing process of destruction and renewal. This continuous process of growth and resorption allows that the structure of the skeleton to adjust to modifications required to maintain healthy functioning, as well as small changes to ensure maximum bone strength, as well as to the changes necessary for healing fractures. Normal bone is a solid support and isn’t fragile. It is comprised of two major components: a matrix of proteins called osteoid, as well as mineral complexes.
Osteoid is made up mainly consisting of fibrous proteins known as collagen and the mineral complexes consist from calcium crystals as well as phosphate, also known as hydroxyapatite. They are contained within the osteoid. Bone also has nutritive cells that are known as osteoblasts. However, the main bone metabolism is accomplished via osteoblasts which produce the protein matrix, and osteoclasts that are massive multinucleated cells that break down and dissolve bone constituents.
The majority of metabolic bone diseases are characterized by the degree to which they affect bone density. Bone density can be assessed in various bones by using radiologic methods. The most commonly used bones to measure are those that form the lumbar spine hip, hip and the radius (a bone that is located in the forearm) The most commonly used method can be described as double radiographic absorptiometry. Bone density is highest around 30 years old and is dependent on the gender of the person and their genetic background.
For instance bone density is higher for men than women and is greater among African Americans than in Europeans or Asians. The results of studies on the density of bone (bone density) are typically presented in terms of the individual’s bone density in relation to the average highest bone density of those who are of the same sexe in genetic and ethnic background.
The result is called”the “T score”. Osteopenia is defined as bone density that is greater than 1 standard deviation lower than the maximum bone density (T score 1) and osteoporosis is defined as bone density that is two and a quarter (or more) standard deviations lower than the median maximum bone density (T score -2.5). The outcomes of measuring bone density may also be described as Z score. The Z score of zero is the median bone density of individuals with similar age, gender as well as genetic backgrounds. A low Z score or T are associated with a higher likelihood in fracture of the bone. breakage.
Marble disease is Also known as osteopetrosis or Albers-Schonberg disease rare condition where the bone become extremely hard, dense, and fragile. It is a disease develops as bone mass continues to grow as the bone marrow cavities fill up with small bone. Since increased bone mass can clog bones marrow which results in a decrease in the amount of bone marrow and less capacity to make red blood cells. In the end, serious anemia causes.
There are congenital as well as acquired types that are associated with marble bones disease. The congenital variants can be associated with lower amount of osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells) or reduced osteoclast activity. Fractures are common; hearing loss and vision loss can occur as the cranial nerves are compressed by an increase in their pathways as bone deposits are deposited inside the skull. In severe cases, it can be fatal however, those who suffer from mild instances of the disorder could be able to live an average life duration.
The condition often results from fluoride accumulation in the bone tissues ( fluorosis) that causes the formation of dense, but brittle bone. Excess fluoride is generally consumed when drinking water that is well-filtered. Marble bone disease that is localized can occur in patients suffering from cancer and is typically seen when patients suffer from breast cancer as well as prostate cancer cancers that had metastatically spread (spread) in bones tissue.
Affected patients are typically treated successfully through bone transplantation of the marrow which produces cells that can be transformed into osteoclasts. Therapies that can be employed to treat marble bone diseases include gamma interferon, which is a protein that slows the progress of the disease or calcitriol which is a vitamin D substance that stimulates osteoclasts to melt and reduce bone.
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